the persian empireAppendix The MedoPersian Empire

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The massive MedoPersian Empire is a major empire on the world stage. While the NeoBabylonian Empire consisted of what we call the Fertile Crescent along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean the MedoPersian Empire extended north to the Black and Caspian Seas, as r east as the Indus River and as r west as part of Asia Minor.

The Persian Empire continued until it was conquered by the Greeks, under Alexander the Great about BC, when it was subsumed into the Greek Empire, which then fell to the Romans Empire about BC.

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According to the kings lists compiled from Herodotus and the Babylonian Chronicle cuneiform lets, Cyaxares reigned BC. He developed the united Median state by bringing together the Iranian tribes and conquering territory. He formed an alliance with NeoBabylonia against the Assyrians, sealed by the marriage of his daughter to Nebuchadnezzar II. The Medes were instrumental, along with Babylon and its allies, for the ll of the Assyrian Empire. Cyaxares was followed by his son Astyages as King of the Medes, reigning from to BC.

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Appendix . The MedoPersian Empireby Dr. Ralph F. Wilson

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As the NeoAssyrian Empire to BC went into decline, vassal states such as Media and Babylon, stopped paying tribute to the Assyrians, and in BC, the Medes and their allies captured the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. Free of Assyrian domination, the Medes grew their empire from their capital in Ecbatana, and extended it from northeastern Iran to the Halys River Kizilirmak River in Asia Minor presentday northcentral Turkey. Media was considered one of four major powers of the ancient Near East, along with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt.

During this time the Persians were one of six Iranian tribes that made up the united Median state others included the Medes, Scythians, and Parthians. In BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandther, Astyages, King of the Medes, and won a decisive victory over him in BC. After this, the Medes were now subject to their close kin, the Persians, who now ruled over and expanded the MedoPersian Empire. When Cyrus conquered Babylon in BC, the Medes and the Persians took over the territory of NeoBabylonia and ruled over the largest empire so r known in the West.

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Extenancient persian societyt of Ancient Persia

Extenancient persian societyt of Ancient PersiaCyrus the Great, a religious man and adherent of Zoroastrianism, first came to power in Iran by overcoming his inlaws, the Medes c.

Timeline of Major Events in the History of Persia

Since all men were eligible for combat until age , manpower was not an obstacle, although to insure loyalty, the original members of this immortal fighting machine were Persians or Medes.

An Introduction to the Rulers and History of the Persian Empire

The Ancient Persians modern Iran are more miliar to us than the other empire builders of Mesopotamia or the Ancient Near East,the Sumeriansthe Babylonians, andthe Assyrians, not only because the Persians were more recent, but because they were amply described by the Greeks. Just as one man, Alexander of Macedon Alexander the Great, ultimately wore the Persians down quickly in about three years, so the Persian Empire rose to power quickly under the leadership ofCyrus the Great.

Heres Why These Are the Most Important People in Ancient History

Ancient Sources on Persian or Iranian History

Alexander the Great put an end to the Achaemenid rulers of Persia. His successors ruled the area as theSeleucids, intermarrying with native populations and covering a large, fretful area that soon broke up into isions. The Parthians gradually emerged as the next major Persian power ruling in the area.

We in the West are accustomed to seeing the Persians as the them to a Greek us. There was no Athenian democracy for the Persians, but an absolute monarchy that denied the inidual, common man his say in political life*. The most important part of the Persian army was a seemingly fearless elite fighting group of ,, who were known as The Immortals because when one was killed another would be promoted to take his place.

*Cyrusmay have been welcomed by the Jewsof Babylonia as a liberator and the U.N. in declared a cuneiform cylinder seal of the period that described the treatment of the inhabitants of the liberated Babylonia as the first human rights document.SeeCyrus Charter of Human Rights

B.C. the conquest made easy by many defectors, becoming the first ruler of the Achaemenid Empire the first of the Persian Empires. Cyrus then made peace with the Medes, and cemented the alliance by creating not just Persian, but Median subkings with the Persian titlekhshathrapavanknown as satraps to rule the provinces. He also respected area religions. Cyrus conquered the Lydians, theGreek colonieson the Aegean coast, the Parthians, and Hyrcanians. He conquered Phrygia on the south shore of the Black Sea. Cyrus set up a fortified border along the Jaxartes River in the Steppes, and in B.C., he conquered the Babylonian Empire. He eslished his capital in a cold area, Pasargadae the Greeks called it Persepolis, contrary to the wishes of the Persian aristocracy. He was killed in battle in . The successors of Cyrus conquered Egypt, Thrace, Macedonia, and spread the Persian Empire east to the Indus River.

Gill, N.S. Extent of Ancient Persia. ThoughtCo, Aug. , , m/extentofancientpersia.

Gill, N.S. , August . Extent of Ancient Persia. Retrieved from

The Life, Family, and Accomplishments of Cyrus the Great

Gill, N.S. Extent of Ancient Persia. ThoughtCo. accessed March , .

Who Were the Parthians and What Was the Extent of the Their Empire?

The Sassanids or Sassanians overcame the Parthians after a few hundred years and ruled with almost constant trouble on their eastern borders as well as to the west, where the Romans contested the territory sometimes through to the fertile area of Mesopotamia modern Iraq, until the Muslim Arabs conquered the area.

Learn About Important Kings of What Is Now the Middle East

The Ancient History and Archaeology of Cyrus, Darius and Xerxes

Discover How Greece Became an Empire With This Collection of Maps

These Countries Feature Prominently in Ancient History

The extent of Persia varied, but at its , it extended southwards to the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean; to the east and northeast, the Indus and Oxus rivers; to the north, the Caspian Sea and Mt. Caucasus; and to the west, the Euphrates River. This territory includes desert, mountains, valleys, and pastures. At the time of the ancient Persian Wars, the Ionian Greeks and Egypt were under Persian dominion.

The Gender Roles of Persia Rome Teotiancient persian societyhuacan and Maya BCE CE

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

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Women supervised domestic chores and had a say in her childrens marriage partners and took care of some financial afirs.

Both men and women performed religious rituals By Caroline Shanahan, Veronica Mierzejewski, Jordan Morgan, and James Vogel Compare and Contrast *Women were involved in religion in both the Persian and the Teotihuacan/Maya civilizations. In Persia, they could be priestesses, and in Mesoamerica they participated in religious rituals along with men.

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The Unit II Classical Civilizations Group Activity

During rd and nd centuries BCE, Roman expansion in Mediterranean allowed women to possess a lot of property. Rome Maya and Teotihuacan Gender Roles in Persia, Rome, Teotihuacan and Maya B.C.E. C.E. Women tended to their own domesticated animals.

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Women could be prominent urban residents as priestesses.

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*In Persia and Mesoamerica, women were responsible for weaving iles. In Rome, however, women tended to domestic chores in their households. Similarities DifferencesFull transcriptMore presentations byVeronica MierzejewskiThe Industrial Revolution New Sources O…

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*In all three civilizations, women had the potential to be prominent iniduals in their societies. In Persia, they could be priestesses. In Rome, they could own a lot of property. In Mesoamerica, they partook in religious observances. *Women in Classical Rome most likely had more rights than women in Persia and Teotihuacan/Maya. In Rome, they could own property and take care of their milys financial afirs.

It was a patriarchal society. Men were imperial bureaucrats and clan warriors, both groups being leaders. Women were not involved in government. Persia Eldest male ruled the household and arranged marriages for his children. They were called pater milias.

*All of these civilizations were patriarchal societies. The men in Persia led the empire as imperial bureaucrats, the men in Rome headed their milies as pater milias, and the men in Mesoamerica held public positions that ran their tribes.

Women wove iles and upper class women could dye them.

There was strict enforcement on laws preventing women to get an inheritance, but they found ways to evade the law.

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Women could be employed by temple and imperial workshops in the ile business. In return for their work, they received grain, wine, beer, and meat from employers.The Gender Roles of Persia Rome Teotiancient persian societyhuacan and Maya BCE CE

ancient persian societyPersian Dance and its forgotten history

In this summary article I have chosen to spotlight seven different eras, from the prehistoric cult of Mithra until the present, which have included decisive events and episodes for developments, but also destructions of this art form. The rise of the new millennium undoubtedly implies a new productive period for Persian dance, as the Iranian society and the new generation of Iran move toward an era of enlightenment.

The most significant bases for researching around the ancient Persian dance can be found in the Greek historian from Halikarnassos, Herodotos superb work Nine Books. He describes the old history of Asian empires and Persian wars until BC.

Contemporary history writers of our time, such as the French historian and professor Pierre Briant, has convincingly certified in his master piece LHistoire de lEmpire Achemenid that dancing has been an important part of the religious worship among Achaemenians and in the ith of Zoroastrianism another Persian religion that is still practiced all over the world.

The most important ritual in this cult has been the worship of Mithra, as he is sacrificing a bull. This act was believed to promote the vigour of life. The consecration to this belief was accomplished among other rites through the baptism in the blood of a bull, followed by a ritual dance performed only by men. This ceremonial act is considered as the earliest known form of Iranian dance, and the origin of the magic dance of the antique civilisations. It is typical for sacred Persic Persian dance, so called Danse Persique Sacre.

Ketzias has specifically mentioned a sort of Persian dance, which was performed in connection with the ceremonies of Mithrakana Mehrgan in which even the King participated. The King in India never appears if he is drunk. But unlike him in Persia, the Emperor drinks precious wine and devotes himself to the Persic dance during the ceremonies arranged in honor of Mithra. Douris from Samos reports about the same royal tradition Only in one occasion the King drinks wine and dances Persic dance and it is when worshipping Mithra.

The origin and rise of Persian dance as an independent and distinctive art form is estimated to be parallel with the birth of Mithraism and its spread. This cult centrally revolves around the ancient Persias sun and light God, Mithra, who is the main figure in this mystery religion that during the late antique era spread over the entire Roman Empire. Numerous temples and depictions of the legendary Mithra have been located and excavated in the three continents of the ancient world; Asia, Africa and Europe. The latest discovery has been done in London as late as .

Another Greek historian, Polukleitos, reports that at the marriage of Alexander the Great with the Persian woman Roxana in Susa, which continued in five days, he was amused by Greek musicians, singers and dancers who were engaged at the Persian Imperial Court.

This cultural exchange has been described as one of the distinctive characteristics of ancient Persian culture, which gave rise to the term of acculturation, meaning the acceptance of new cultures. This was an evident quality for the legitimation and survival of an empire that ruled over numerous nations, from Egypt in North Africa, to India in Far East. It was the worlds first religiously tolerant empire and consisted of a multitude of different languages, races, religions and cultures.

In several occasions he has indicated and in detail described the cultural and social habits of Persians. He has mentioned the wide cultural exchange that Persians had with the ancient world. From every corner of the known antique world, the most appreciated artists were imported to the imperial court in order to practice their artistic abilities in the presence of the majestic Emperor and his court.

The several thousand years of Iranian history is characterized by great events that influenced important parts of the world and its civilization. It ranges over eras of grandeur but also over painful and absurd periods of defeat and destruction.

. According to the Greek s, there have been detailed descriptions for different forms of dancing, like fire dance, sword dance and even horse dance, which meant dancing while riding on horseback.

Professor Briant quotes Xenophon, the antique writer of the Cyropedie a biographical depiction of the first Achaemenian Emperors life, Cyrus the Great When Cyrus was devoted to the traditional sacrificing rituals in Pars Persia he commanded the Persians to perform a dance, which was influenced by the customs of their ancestors Kata ta patria.

… the man from Mysie performed a Persic dance by clashing his shields together, bending himself forward and rising up again. He did all that harmonically and proportionally to the rhythm of the flute.

This article is a prelude to an exhaustive research work about the history of Persian dance and is intended to expose this national art form. The forgotten history of Persian dance is the story of a world heritage, which has to be given a new birth.

It is the irony of history that ever since the revolution in , this art form has been prohibited in the same country that once upon a time performed a central role for its expansion and advancement.

The cultural exchange with the ancient civilizations, particularly with Egypt and Greece has been extensive and proceeded during several centuries. In various works by Greek historians Persian dance masters choreographs and pedagogues have been mentioned as they have appeared in antique Greece, and Greek sportsmen, poets and dancers have been sent to the Persian Empire.

By virtue of these bases, Iran can be considered as one of the ancient worlds empires, which methodically and actively was devoted to the development of the art of dance. For this ancient nation, dancing has been an important social phenomenon and a religious ritual.

, the first ruling dynasty of the Persian Empire, contained several enthusiastic emperors who encouraged the advancement of different art forms. Ketzias, another Greek historian writes about the popular and talented female dancer, Zenon from Crete, who was Artaxerxs IIs Ardeshir Shah II court dancer and the apple of the Kings eye.

The importance of the art of dance among Persians can clearly be viewed relatively numerous Greek history books. Different forms of dance have existed as they were performed on ceremonial, ritual or entertaining occasions. For acquainting their horses with the tumultous scenes of war, the Persians used to execute a military dance, which meant that in a collective arrangement, clashing the weapons together rhythmically and dancing with their horses.

Xenophon emphas that this kind of Persic Dance Danse Persique has been very usual and as popular as riding because Persic Dance, like a sport, strengthens the muscles!

ersian dance history is characterized by many scinating and also tragic incidents. It seems to be completely unknown to the outside world, partly because of the present political situation of the country that has toned down the interest for a profound research effort. The other reason is the current archaeological discoveries and excavations in Iran, during the past thirty years. They have made it possible to have access to material and evidence for the origin of Persian dance, ever since the appearance of the cult of Mithra about two thousand years before our calendar.

Dancing was a welldeveloped and protected art form during the existence of other dynasties of Persian Empire, for instance

Persiancient persian societyan art an introduction article

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Ancient costumes of the Persiansancient persian societyAncient Roman Costumes Ancient Roman headdresses

In many of these helmets the flaps descending on the shoulders are four in number, and probably were cut out of the legs of the animals whose hide or skin formed the body of the casque. In most of the lighter caps we only discern one single pair of flaps, which are often tucked up, and confined by a string round the crown.

The footwear of the Medes and Persians consisted either of pieces of leather or other material folded tightly round the feet and tied over the instep or of actual boots, which were just as primitively as the other of footcovering just mentioned. The Persian headdress was a irly deep cap, coming down in front to the eyebrows and at the back to the nape of the neck. It was made of stiff material, such as felt or leather, and had sideflaps which were often long enough to be tied under the chin. The dress of Persian women differed little from that worn by the men. The primitive form of it was hides wrapped round the body. At a later time the cut was the same, but the garments were now made of fine leather or felt. The only real differences between the dress of the two es were that the womens coats were wider and longer than those of the men and were closed down the front except for a slit at the breast. When the Median of dress became increasingly common among the Persians the ancient Persian female garments gradually disappeared, or were greatly modified. They were considerably lengthened and became more voluminous, and the sleeves were wider. Median s of dress were in strong contrast to the Persian s. In the latter the garments were closefitting, short, and made of strong material; in the former they were wide, long, and voluminous, and were therefore made of finer materials.

Gallic Busts. Merovingian. The comforle costumes of the Gauls.

The original Persian costume was made of tanned hides, covering not only the upper part of the body, but also the legs. At a later time about B.C. the Persians used strong but soft materials to provide suile protection in view of the climate of the country.

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In war the Asiatics never seem, like the Greeks, to have worn either breastplates or greaves, but frequently a coat or jacket, with sleeves, entirely of mail. A flap of mail frequently descended from under the helmet, to protect the neck and shoulders.

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Cyrus II of Persia. Born around BC to BC, fighting on a scythed chariot.

The dress of the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Dacians is specially interesting, because the cut and of it show many points of resemblance to the Teutonic shions of prehistoric and early times. The Scythians of about B.C. wore long trousers, smocklike shirts, and cloaks very like those worn by the Teutonic peoples. All the Scythian tribes dressed in very nearly the same way. The men wore irly wide trousers and a coat open in front and held in place by a girdle. Sometimes the coat hung down over the trousers, and sometimes it was tucked into them. The feet were shod with short topboots stened round the ankles Fig. , The headdress was either a capshaped piece of material kept on by a string that passed round the head or a pointed cap like that worn by the Phrygians.

Ancient Iranian. Medes King, soldiers and officers.

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This cloak was stened at the right shoulder with a pin, or brooch, or even a thorn. The long coat was kilted sometimes high, at other times low. Sometimes it was slit at the sides, or it might be closed all round. The headdress was a cap almost identical with that worn by the Phrygians. In battle a helmet was worn. The trousers and footwear were similar to those in use among the Parthians and monarchical Scythians. The dress of Sarmatian women, who, well armed and mounted, followed their husbands into battleamong the Yaxamatians women formed the sole cavalry of their tribe, the men fighting on foot as archerswas almost the same as that of the men viz., a long undergarment, with a shorter one over it. Both of these were sleeveless, and were girt high or low as the wearer pleased. The short upper garment sometimes had a long slit at the breast trimmed with ribbons, with which it could be tied. The female headdress was a tall cap like that worn by the Phrygians.

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Dacian and Illyrian costume closely resembled that worn by the Sarmatians, and consisted of shoes, trousers, long coats, and oblong or semicircular cloaks. The main difference was in headdress. Whereas the Sarmatians wore Phrygian caps, the Dacians and Illyrians wore a irly tall, stiff conical cap made of some kind of felt see Fig. . Another point of difference was that the Dacians, unlike the Sarmatians, did not wear several coats one over another, and, speaking generally, Dacian dress was not so long or so loose as the other.

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The trousers were made in the same manner as those of the other Scythian tribes, but in some cases the Persian was followed Figs. , , . The Parthian coat, on the other hand, which was made of coloured, soft materials, often of fine quality, resembled the Median garment. It consisted of two pieces, front and back, shaped alike. See Fig. . These were sewn together on the shoulders and at the sides as r as the sleevehole. The sleeves were conspicuously long. The hole for the head was very wide ; round it was a broad hem for the tiestring, so that the garment could be drawn tight up to the neck or allowed to lie lower on the shoulders. In this way the top of the undergarment, which was similar, but, as said above, shorter and closerfitting, could be seen to a greater or less extent, as the wearer pleased. The upper coat either had a slit at the breast or was ided in front from the foot up to the fork; it might even be left completely open in front.

Fig. . Persian Leather Coat with Sleeves. Fig. . Persian Breeches.

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The Medes and Persians seem more generally to have worn the cidaris, or conical cap, sometimes terminating in a sharp point, at others truncated, and mostly loaded with ornament. The prevailing male headdress of the Asiatics, bordering on the Euxine and the Archipelago, appears to have been that which is generally known by the name of the Phrygian bonnet, and of which the characteristic features are its point or top bent down forward, and its long flaps descending on the shoulders. Sometimes this covering scorns to have been a more loose cap of the most soft and pliant stuff unable to support itself upright, and hanging down in large wrinkles; at others it appears to have formed a helmet of the most hard and inflexible substance of leather, or even of metalstanding quite stiff and smooth, and enriched with embossed ornaments.

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Early Cretan Libation Vessel Remarkable relic from the city of Minos, The Minotaur.  Related…Read more

Many of the Asiatic nations were celebrated for their constant use and skilful management of horses; and are often represented as fighting on horseback against Greeks on foot.

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The dress of the Sarmatians closely resembled that of the Parthians, but there was this difference. When the Sarmatian wore two coats he put on the shorter one above the longer one, and only the longer one which often reached to the feet was fitted with long sleeves. The sleeves of the shorter one never came below the elbows, and often came no lower than the middle of the upper arm. Occasionally no upper coat was worn at all, and the Sarmatian costume then consisted of the trousers, the long coat tucked high up, and a cloak, which might be long or short, rectangular or semicircular.

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In the figures ofAmazonswe often see the beak of the helmet terminate in the bill of a griffin, and the spine or back of the casque rise in the jagged crest of that bulous animal. When thus shaped this covering may be considered as a sort of trophy, worn in consequence of the defeat, and formed out of the very spoil of some of those griffins with whom theAmazonsare represented as constantly at war.Minervaherself sometimes appears in a Phrygian helmet of this species, probably when represented as worshipped at Troy; andRomanlikewise wears it on many Latin coinsin order, no doubt, to indicate the kindred which the Romans claimed with the Trojans. This Phrygian bonnet seems to have been retained by many of the officers of the Byzantine emperors; and to have been, in its turn, again borrowed from these by several of the dignitaries of the Turkish empire; nay, to have travelled, during the intercourse of the Venetians with the Greeks, as r westward as Venice itself, where the Doge continued to wear it to the last day of his existence.

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Byzantine costume to th century.

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The tailoring of mens clothes in ancient Persia was somewhat complicated by the ct that it had to be adapted to the of the hides available. Therefore not only had the body of the coat to be made in two or three pieces Fig. , but the sleeves also had to be cut separately and then attached to the coat. This coat reached from the neck to the knees. It was open down the front, and stened by a girdle. The sleeves were somewhat tight, and covered the whole arm down to the wrist. The hose or breeches of the Persians Fig. were irly wide. They reached sometimes to the knees and sometimes to the ankles, and were stened round the waist. They were thus both and convenient, and their great width at the top made up for the lack of stylish cut.

As with most other Asiatic peoples, womens wear among the Scythians was almost identical with that of the men. The only difierences were that womens clothes were longer and wider, made of finer material, and more daintily worked.

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Ancient Roman Nobility Women and Female Slave.

The only differences between womens dress and that of the men were in the greater length of the former and the finer material of which it was made. The clothing of women of the upper classes was much more gaily coloured and more richly adorned Fig. . A frequent addition to the costume was a cloaklike wrap, and some women wore a veil stened to the head and lling down the back. For the rest, this longsleeved garment was closefitting at the top. See Fig. . No girdle was worn with it. The slit at the breast

Roman Costumes. Peasants, High Priest, Senator.

The cut of the garments was as primitive as the material of which they were made. The coat consisted of two pieces Fig. joined by a seam running down the back. In each piece a slit was cut for the arms, and the sleeves were sewn in separately.

The chief defensive weapon of the Asiatics was the pelta, or small shield in the form of a crescent; sometimes with, and sometimes without its curved side ided by a point into twin concavities. The peculiar offensive weapons of the inhabitants of Asia were the bipennis, or double battleaxe, the club, and the bow and arrow, generally carried in two different partitions of the same case or quiver.>

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This was the ordinary Parthian dress. That of the upper classes was made of splendid material, mostly coloured and richly adorned. Over it was also occasionally worn an oblong cape, stened at the breast with an agraffe, or clasp.

Like the cape of the high priest, the priests upper robe was made in two pieces, a front and a back. In contradistinction to the former, however, it was not sewn from top to foot, but was open at the sides. Moreover, the front and back pieces of this robe differed from those of the other both in shape and , and the garment itself had a hoodlike collar, separately sewn on Fig. , c. The front and back pieces were first sewn together at the shoulders; then the rest of the width of the back piece was turned over forward. The rest of its upper edges was sewn to the sides of the front piece. The collar was also sewn to the front piece so that the seams of this sewing met the seams connecting the front piece with the back.

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The clothing of the Dacian women must have been made of fine material. In cut the garments consisted of two broad oblong pieces, a front and a back. These were sewn together at the shoulders and down the sidecept, of course, the openings for the arms. The opening for the head was finished with a wide hem, through which a string was passed for stening. The sleeves had, as usual, only one seam, and were tighter at the wrist than at the shoulder.

This of costume was worn by Medes of all classes, and was also the ceremonial garb of the monarch and his officials. It was Cyrus who introduced this Median dress into Persia. The ancient Persian national dress was retained only by subordinate Court officials. The priests in Media and Persia, the magicians, when performing their official duties were clothed in white. The cut of their garments varied with their rank. The only item of dress which was worn by all priests was the sacred girdle. Priests were forbidden to wear any kind of ornament during their celebrations, but they had to carry a cane rod in their hands. See Fig. .

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Frankish Merovingian costume and th century.

Ancient Costume History ofEgyptian, Greek, Roman and others.

Widespread and numerous as the Scythians were, only one tribe among them attained any historical importance. These were the Parthians.The Parthians

In cut Dacian costume, made of fine or coarse woollen material, resembled that of the Parthians, but the coat, especially the upper part of it, was considerably tighter than in the Parthian . It had a slit at the breast, and at one side or even at both was open to halfway up the thigh. Dacian trousers were shaped like those worn by the Scythians, but were not nearly so wide, and were tied round the ankles after the Sarmatian .

Costume, Arms Headgear of Lydians, Syrians, Phrygians and Etruscans. Printed .

In the ceremonies performed in honour of the sacred fire the retinue of the priests was dressed in purple. A purple robeor at least a purple capeseems to have been the distinctive dress of the chief priest. When officially employed he wore the Median national costume and a headdress very similar to that worn by the king. The material and cut of the clothing of the rest of the priests bore greater resemblance to the Persian costume, or consisted of an undergarment and a wrap or plaid.

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The shields of the Gauls.Clans in the Roman Empire.

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I DO not, under this head, mean to notice the Chinese, the Hindoos, or other more remote eastern nations, who were hardly known by name to the Greeks, who were never represented on their monuments, and whose costume can be of little use to the historical painter. I only wish to offer a few observations, with regard to those less distant inhabitants of Asia, who, under the name of Medes, Persians, and Parthians, Amazons, Phrygians, Lycians, and Syrians, though a race totally distinct from the Greeks, had with these European neighbours some intercourse, and whose representations not unfrequently recur in their paintings and sculpture.

The Dacian cloak was almost semicircular Fig. ; the curved beg had long fringes. It was held together by a clasp on the right shoulder. The chief difference between female dress in Dacia and Sarmatia was that the Dacian had sleeves, while the Sarmatian coats had none. Dacian women followed the practice of wearing several coats; the sleeves of the overgarments were shorter than those of the under ones, and were gathered and tied just above the elbow or halfway up the upper arm. The garments were very long and very full, the over one being usually shorter than the one beneath. Both had one or two tucks, and were in this way shortened. Quite frequently the girdle was replaced by a cloak, oblong or with a rounded lower edge, worn so that the upper edge passed round the body, the comers being knotted together in front. The Dacian women had a very peculiar shion of disposing of the great width of the upper part of their clothing. They gathered a large part of the material at the back and arranged it in a knot, pinning it to keep it in place. Round the head they tied a kerchief, which fell to the nape of the neck like a hairnet.

The Dacians, though inhabitants of the European shores of the Euxine, but near neighbours to, and probably of the same origin with the Asiatic nations here mentioned, seem to have deviated little from them in their costume. They wore their shoes or soles stened with long strings, wound several times round the ankle, and their pantaloons very wide. On the Trajan column not only many of the Dacian soldiers themselves, but even many of their horses appear entirely enveloped in a coat of mail or covering of small scales, in close contact with the body and limbs. Their helmets were conical and ended in a sharp spike.

Bust of an Asiatic Female. Persian headdress. The Cidaris.

The trousers were made of two oblong pieces of material see Fig. . Each of these was folded lengthwise and sewn up the greater part of the length. These two baglike pieces were then sewn together where the seam in each had stopped, this junction seam running up in front and at the back and between the legs. The extra width at the top was distributed round the waist during the process of dressing and kept in place by the girdle. The headdress was a piece of leather or other material, which was given the necessary shape in the process of fulling.

The material used by the Scythians varied with the degree of civilization attained by the different tribes. The majority of them, being nomads wandering about on the Steppes, had nothing but the material that their flocks supplied. They were exposed throughout a large part of the year to inclement weather, and therefore their clothes were made of tanned leather, the separate pieces being sewn together with narrow strips of leather. Some tribes wore clothing shioned in the same way, but made of fur, while still others dressed themselves in material made from sheeps wool and felted.

The usual mens dress, called kandys, was much wider at the foot than higher up, and was so long that it had to be gathered in front and at the sides and held by a girdle Fig. . The sleeves came to the wrists; they were cut very wide near the wrist, but were tighter toward the armhole. The Median coat consisted of two pieces, front and back, cut practically alike, except that the cut for the neck was in the front piece. These pieces were much narrower at the top than at the foot Fig. , and were sewn together at the shoulders and down the two sides. The sleeves were quaintly shaped, and were put in at the holes left for the purpose in the sideseams. As was almost universally the case in ancient times, the sleeveseams were in line under the arm with the sideseam of the garment The crosses in Fig. indicate how the sleeve itself was sewn..

The Asiatics often wore halfboots laced before, with four long depending flaps, shaped like those of their bonnets, and, like those, probably formed out of the legs of the animals whose skins were converted into these buskins. Frequently eastern personages appear in shoes or slippers; seldom, if ever, in mere sandals, that leave the toes bare, like those worn by the Greeks.

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The Parthian, and other more inland sovereigns of Asia, are sometimes, though seldom, represented on their coins beheaded, with their long hair and bushy beards most finically dressed and ced. Often they wear a cylindrical cap, rather wider at the top than at the bottom, called mitra by theGreeks.Sometimes this cap was encircled by a diadem, and at others loaded with different emblematic ornaments. Its shape is to this day preserved in that worn by the Armenian priests.

The Median of hose or breeches, when worn at all, was probably in all respects like that of the Persians. On the other hand, the Median headdress was quite unlike that worn in Persia. It was a hood that not only covered the head, but entirely surrounded the ce, concealing even the chin. From it hung down two broad strips, one lling over the breast and one over the back. A different form of headdress was used by the upper classes. These wore round caps varying in and increasing slightly in diameter upward, the crown being either flat or raised. The crowns and edges of these caps, which were sometimes bestowed by the monarch as signs of distinction or of royal vour, were frequently covered with rich embroidery. The wearing of a blue and white cord round the cap was a privilege strictly confined to relatives of the royal mily.

An entirely different of dress Assyrians is met with when we turn to the Medes and Persians. In contrast to the costumes swathing the body worn by the peoples already mentioned, we now find hose or breeches and a blouselike shirt with sleeves.

began at the neck, but was covered with bows of broad ribbon. In order to render the upper part of the garment closefitting it was shaped at the waist, the lower part being cut considerably wider than the upper.>

Over this vest was most frequently worn a wide sleeveless tunic of a different ure and pattern, clasped on the shoulders, confined by a girdle round the waist, and when long, gathered up a second time by means of another ligature lower down; and of this tunic the skirts reached to about the middle of the thigh. To this thus r light and airy dress, aged and dignified persons still added a mantle or peplum, different from that of the Greeks in being edged round with a regular and distinct fringe, not interwoven with the body of the stuff, but purposely tacked on; and this studied enrichment, never observable in Grecian dresses, is in ct represented by Eschylus as a peculiarity characteristic of the peplum of the barbarians, or Asiatic nations.

Of the male attire of the different nations inhabiting the region now called Asia Minor, the prevailing features seem to have been a vest with long tight sleeves reaching down to the wrists, and long pantaloons descending to the ankles, nay, often hanging over the instep, and losing themselves withinside the shoes or sandals. These pantaloons clothe those masculine ladies theAmazons, whenever they are represented on some warlike expedition; though at other times, when at home and engaged in peaceful pursuits, they appear as on one of my fie tile vases in petticoats like other females. Sometimes these pantaloons were made of the skins of animals, at others of rich and fine tissues, embroidered or painted in sprigs, spots, stripes, checks, zigzags, lozenges, or other ornaments. Sometimes they fit tight; at others they hang loose, and ll in large wrinkles over the shoes. The vest, always of the same stuff and design with the pantaloons, seems like our modern waistcoats to have opened in front, and to have been closed by means of clasps or buttons placed at considerable distances from each other.

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Fig. . Upper Garment of Median and Persian Priest. a Sleeve; b back piece; c hood.

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The Parthians were a savage race of horsemen. Speaking generally, their clothing was the same as that worn by the other Scythian tribes, especially by the monarchical Scythians who were settled round the shore of the Black Sea. Like these last mentioned, the Parthians usually wore several coats one over another. When putting on these coats they pulled the upper one, which was cut wide and was long enough to reach to the knees, up under their girdle, so that the bottom edge of the coat underneath which was much shorter and closer fitting could be seen Fig. . They also wore long, irly wide trousers. Their headdress was sometimes pointed and sometimes round, or shaped like the Phrygian cap. The shoes were of leather, frequently dyed a reddish purple.

Albert Kretschmer Ancient Roman Costumes

Ancient Costumes of thePersians and other Asiatics.

When the garment was being put on, the loose flaps of the front piece were stened together underneath the back piece. Median footwear, like the Persian, consisted of laced shoes made of leather or other strong material. Those worn by wealthy people were richly embroidered, trimmed with gold, and frequently light in colour.

Gallic and GalloRomanhelmets of Celtic warriors.

Ancient Court dress Headdresses Roman

persian religionline of the Persians

persian religionline of the Persians BC Dayaukku/Deoces founds the Median dynasty

Abu lAbbas Safh, whose army is led by the Persian general Abu Muslim Khorasani, replaces the Umayyad dynasty with the Abbasid dynasty

The Ottomans conquer Tabriz, Armenia and Georgia from Iran

May The first oil well is drilled in the Middle East Iran by a British company

Jun Khomeini dies and is replaced by Khamenei as supreme leader, while Rafsanjani wins the presidency over Montazeri

terrorists backed by Libya blow up a Pan Am plane over Scotland killing people probably on behalf of Iran

the Sunni group Jundullah kills members of the security forces on a highway outside Zahedan, Iran

Jan An antiKhomeini article causes widespread antigovernment demonstrations during which dozens of people are killed by the police

The great mosque of Ishan is completed

Jun The shah Muhammad Ali crushes an insurrection with help from Russia and suspends the constitution

BC Pergamum conquers the Seleucid lands of Lydia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pisidia

Dec Popular protests erupt in Mashad and then spread to other cities after a leak reveals that the government spends billions of dollars on military and clerical agencies

BC Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine

Qassem Suleimanis alQuds funds and arms the Shiite militias in Iraq like the Mahdi Army to fight the USA

Ismail I conquers Baghdad and massacres Sunni Muslims

Iran grants Britain a monopoly on tobacco but the population rises in protest

Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Britain sign the Baghdad Pact that de cto asserts British influence in the Middle Eastagainst the Soviet Union

Iran opens a national bank under German management

BC King UntashNapirisha of Elam founds a new capital at Chogha Zanbil

Fath Ali dies and his grandson Muhammad, with help from Britain and Russia, becomes shah of Iran and appoints his Sufi master Hajji Mirza Aqasi as prime minister, thus rehabilitating Sufism against the opposition of the ulema

BC Artaxerxes V dies, last of the Achaemenians

BC Xerses, king of Persia, invades Greece and wins the battle of Thermopylae, but is defeated at the naval battle of Salamis because the Greeks employ the ster trireme boats

The Savids capture Baghdad from the Ottomans and begin a year war

The Iranian Tunneling Association is founded in Iran

Mahmoud Khan of Persia is murdered by his cousin Ashraf

the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Savids

Qassem Suleimani is appointed to lead the alQuds force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards

Feb Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is appointed to lead Irans nuclear program

BC Achaemenes founds the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia in Anshan, subject to Media

The shah bans all political parties except the Iranian Peoples Resurence Party of prime minister Hoveyda

the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Savids, helped by a popular insurrection of the Sunnis, but the Savids survive in eastern Iran, Azerbajan and the southern Caucasus

BC Daiukku founds the new capital of the Medians/Persians at Hakmataneh/Ecbatana Hamadan

Ahmad Shah Duran, the Afghan commander of Nadirs bodyguard, proclaims himself the ruler of Afghanistan with capital in Kandahar and founds the Durrani dynasty

Mahmud Ghazni dies and the Ghaznavid empire declines

BC Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India

Ardashir, descendant of the priest Sassan, seizes the throne of Persia/Parthia, ends the Arsacid dynasty, and becomes the first Sassanid king with capital in Istakhr near Persepolis and Zoroastrianism as the official religion

Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Rome

Portugal conquers the port of Comorao Bandar Abbas to control trade in the Persian Gulf

the shah Reza Pahlevi of Iran introduces a series of reforms including womens suffrage called white revolution

BC Darius makes Aramaic the official language of the Persian empire

BC the Parthians under Phraates II are defeated by the Scythians

Jul Iran signs a deal limiting its nuclear program in return for the United Nations to remove economic sanctions

BC Alexander the Great conquers Persia and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty

BC Alexander the Great dies at Babylon and his empire is carved into three empires Cassander rules over Greece and Macedonia, Lysimachus rules over Thracia and Asia Minor, Ptolemy rules over Egypt, Judea, Syria, Mesopotamia and India

the Buyid shah Adud Dawla conquers Baghdad and seizes effective control of the caliphate from the Abbasids

BC Median king Cyaxares moves the capital to Ecbatana Hamadan

Karim Khan of the Zand tribe wins the civil war in Iran/Persia and eslishes the Zand dynasty

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty moves its capital to Tabriz

Dec A suicide bomber of the antiIranian group Jundaliah kills four people in Iran

Roman emperor Trajan defeats the Parthian king Vologezes III and conquers Mesopotamia, including the Parthian capital Ctesiphon

Sadr alDin, Safis son, claims to be a descendant of the founder of Islam, Mohammed

the Ghaznavids of Afghanistan defeat the Samanids of Persia in Khurasan and the Qarakhanids seize Bukhara

P increases yearly on average through the mid s

Feb Two Russian hitmen kill Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh

BC the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia

Savid ruler Abbas dies and is succeeded by Abbas II that continues his construction projects

the Ghaznavid kingdom is founded in Afghanistan at Ghazni by Alptegin, a Turkic slave soldier of the Samanids

Dec Two suicide bombers of the Sunni Muslim group Jundollah kill people in southeastern Iran during a Shiite ceremony in retaliation for the execution of the groups leader

the Mongols invade Transoxania Bukhara and Samarkand and Iran/Persia

Two million people die in Iran in three years of mine

Over of Irans foreign trade is with Germany

Feb Cossack general Reza Khan seizes power in Iran with a coup and becomes war minister

Britain and Russia sign a treaty Convention of St Petersburg iding Iran, Central Asia and Afghanistan into respective spheres of influence

A train accident kills people in Iran

Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion manicheism

BC Darius of Persia attacks Thrace and Macedonia but the fleet is destroyed by a storm before it can reach Athens

Shahpur I eslishes the library of Jondi Shahpur, one of the largest in the world

Nov An explosion kills Hassan Moqqadam, the head of Irans missile program

BC Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium

Dec Marziyeh Vahid Dastjerdi, the only female minister in years of Irans Islamic republic, is removed from office after a dispute with president Ahmadinejad

BC Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty eslishes itself over northwestern Iran

BC Artaxerxes III Ochus becomes king of Persia

Pahlavi, the language of Persia, is reformed according to the Arabic script

the Zayids do not recognize the imam Baqir and cause a split within the shiites

BC Artaxerxes III destroys Sidon that has revolted and invades Egypt

BC the game of chess shatranj develops in Persia

Jul About two thirds of Iraqs counterterrorism missions are aimed at Iranianbacked militias

Iran is accused by the USA of trying to build a nuclear weapon and accepts to stop enriching uranium

the Sassanid king Khusro II launches a new attack against Byzantium

Feb Sunni militants kill people in Irans Baluchi region

Seven emperors are raised to the throne of Iran in four years

the Sassanids sign a peace treaty with Rome

the Arabs capture Ctesiphon, the last Sassanid is assassinated in Merv and the Sassanid empire ends

Agha Mohammad Qajar of a Turkic tribe a former slave who had been castrated defeats the Zand and creates his own kingdom with capital in Tehran

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu under Jahanshah conquer Shiraz

Kublai Khan dies and the empire fragments in khanates, one of them being the Ilkhanate, descendants of Hulegu, with capital in Tabriz

Jan Muzafr dies and his proRussian son Muhammad Ali becomes the new shah of Iran

Portugal conquers the port of Hormuz to control trade in the Persian Gulf

the Sassanids capture Egypt from Byzantium

The Shaybanid dynasty seizes Transoxania

Nov Iranian nuclear scientist Majid Shahriari is killed and Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is wounded

the Mongol leader Hulegu assumes the title of Ilkhan as ruler of Persia

Ismail dies having united Iran/Persia and most of Afghanistan

Jun Hassan Rouhani is elected president of Iran but real power remains in the hands of ayatollah Ali Khameini

Sep For the first time since the president of the USA and the president of Iran speak on the phone

A railway opens connecting the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf

Sep Irans first nuclear plant goes into operation

Collapse of the Shaybanid dynasty in Transoxania, replaced by the Astrakhanid dynasty

AntiUSA conservative politician Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a former member of the Revolutionary Guard wins presidential elections in Iran, refuses to dismantle Irans nuclear program and calls for the destruction of Israel

Sayyid Ali Muhammad proclaims himself to be the Bab and later the Mahdi, the manifestation of the th imam and starts a new religion

Hezbollah suicide commandos organized by Iran blow up the US and French barracks killing marines and French soldiers

the Hezbollah is founded by a radical shiite group with the mission of creating an Iranian Islamic republic in Lebanon

Britain and Iran ally at the Treaty of London

Oil developing countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela found the OPEC

Iran opens the first public school for girls

the Persian mathematician Khwarazmi founds Algebra and invents the Arabix numerals

Nasir alDin is assassinated by a follower of Jaman alDin alAfghani and Muzafr alDin becomes the new Iranian shah

Dec One million people demonstrate in Tehran against the shah

Aug The year old Reza Shah Pahlevi ascends to the throne of Iran when his ther is deposed by British and Soviet troops for refusing to expel the many German advisors, and Iran becomes the main transit point for supplies going to the Soviet Union

Jun ISIS attacks kill people at Tehrans parliament and Khomeini mausoleum

Oct The USA foils a plot by the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the USA and to bomb the embassy of Saudi Arabia in the USA

the Mamluks stop the Mongols in Syria and annex Syria

Mohammad Mossadegh becomes prime minister of Iran and nationalizes the AngloIranian Oil Company

Dec The price of oil reaches . per barrel, almost four times what it was a year earlier

BC Ptolemys general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, declares himself satrap of Babylon

Feb The first train to connect China and Iran takes days through Kazakstan and Turkmenistan

Reza Khan appoints himself as Shah of Persia, the Qajar dynasty ends and the Pahlavi dynasty begins, with a program of economic and cultural Westernization with a secular educational system

Qasem Soleimani leads Irans efforts to help Assad of Syria against the rebels

the Persians/Sassanids conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia

The Saviyya master Shaykh Junayd transforms the Sufi order into a military movement and fights Christians in Georgia and Trebizond

Iranian reformist leader Saeed Hajjarian is almost killed in an assassination attempt

The Ottomans of Selim I defeat Shah Ismail I Savid army at Chaldiran Iran/Persia thereby conquering Kurdistan and Armenia

Byzantine troops destroy the fire temples of Persia in revenge for the Persian desecration of Jerusalem

Jul A revolution led by Najaf Quli Khan deposes the shah and restores the constitution

The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a network of tunnels to connect secret nuclear weapon sites

BC the Kushan eslish their capital in Kabul

BC the Parni invade the satrapy of Parthia northern Iran and found the Parthian empire with capital in Ctesiphon near Seleucia and Arsaces as ruler founder of the Arsacid dynasty

BC Seleucus is murdered by the king of Thracia and is succeeded by his son Antiochus who transfers the capital to Antiochia

The Savids take Hormuz from the Portuguese with help from the British

BC the Parthians under Aranus II are defeated again by the Scythians and Mithridates II succeeds Aranus II as king of Parthia

Iranian/Persian general Nadir Shah invades India and sacks Delhi, stealing the Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor diamond

A raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and rightwing vigilantes triggers student riots

the Sassanids capture Jerusalem from Byzantium

Ishan has mosques, colleges, caravansaries, public baths

Nadirs Persian army defeats the Ottomans and regains Armenia, Georgia and Tabriz

BC Cyrus of Persia sacks Babylon and frees the Jews

Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews, who emigrate to Arabia

Aug Show trials of opposition leaders are broadcast live on television in Iran in the biggest purge since the founding of the Islamic Republic

Sep Russia and China are the only countries to support Syrias crackdown on dissidents while even Syrias ally Iran distances itself from Assads regime

Mani, a thinker from Ecbatana, begins to preach in SeleuciaCtesiphon

Shaykh Safi alDin, of Kurdish descent, founder of the Savid dynasty, founds a Sunni Sufi order in Uzbekistan, the Saviyya

Irans ayatollahs outlaw most of the opposition candidates so that parliamentary elections are won by the conservative party

Iranian/Persian general Nadir Kuli of northeastern Iran expels the Afghans and reinstates the Savids to power

Khusro I ascends to the Sassanid throne and is influenced by Mazdakism

students demonstrate in Teheran against the Iranian regime, helped by USAbased television stations and by radio stations run by Iranian exiles

BC Darius Codomannus becomes king of Persia

Jun supporters of opposition leader Mir Hossein Moussavi protest against rigged elections in Iran won by incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

The last Savid dies and Nadir proclaims himself the new shah of Iran/Persia

Iran introduces a law code that replaces Islamic shariia

BC Zarathustra forms a new religion in Persia

Savid king Shah Abbas I creates a gunpowderbased military force with a slave army and economic revival

Zoroastran Persia and Christian Armenia sign a treaty that allows the Armenians to keep their religion

Zoroastran Persia Sassanids defeats Christian Armenia

BC Ionian cities revolt against Persian domination

the last Persian Seljuq ruler dies and Seljuq power collapses in Iran

Khusrau II is assassinated by his troops while the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids

The Astrakhanid dynasty is replaced by the Mangit dynasty in Bukhara

BC Cyrus Achaemenian defeats Astyages, emperor of the Medes, conquers its capital Ecbatana Hamadan, and unifies Media and Elam in the Persian empire

Nadir Shah is assassinated and Iran/Persia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan disintegrate

BC Darius founds the new capital of Persia, Persepolis

The border with Turkmenistan reopens after years

the Safrids shiite in eastern Persia become virtually independent

BC king Ashurbanipal of Assyria raids the Elamite capital Susa in Persia

Ardashir I Sassanid defeats Aranus V, last Parthian ruler, and moves the capital to Ctesiphon

the Ottoman empire conquers Mesopotamia from the Savid empire with the Peace of Amasya

Russia invades Iran from the north Baku and the Ottomans invade from the west

BC the Akkadian empire is destroyed by the Guti, who invade from the north, and the Elamites of Susa regain their independence

PanIslamic activist Jaman alDin alAfghani returns to Iran from the Ottoman land

Abu Bakr, one of Mohammeds followers and the first Muslim caliph prophets successor, quells upheavals throughout Arabia and declares war on the Roman and Persian Sassanid empires

Afghanistan gains independence from Britain

The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a secret underground nuclear plant at Natanz

the Seljuks defeats the Buyids, invade Mesopotamia and install themselves in Baghdad under the suzerainty of the Abbasids

BC a treaty between Rome and the Parthians fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river Iraq

BC Cambyses dies and civil War erupts in Persia

Iran Persia loses the Caucasus Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan to Russian Treaty of Turkmanchay

BC Darius invades mainland Greece to punish Athens but loses at the battle of Marathon

BC Seleucus defeats and kills Lysimachus and thereby conquers Asia Minor

the Sassanid intellectual Mazdak advocates the abolition of private property, the ision of wealth, nonviolence and vegetarianism

BC Cyrus Achaemenian unifies Elam, and moves the capital of the Achaemenids to Susa

Russia invades the northern provinces of Iran and forces Iran to dissolve parliament and to restore the power of the shah

BC Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria, defeats the Medes, who rule in Persia

BC Diodotos, a Macedonian ruler of the satrapy of Bactria Afghanistan, declares its independence from the Seleucids

a missile fired by a US warship downs an Iranian civilian airplane and kills all passengers aboard

Feb Reformists allied with Rouhani make huge gains in the Assembly of Experts

a first dynasty creates the Elamite kingdom non Semitic in western Persia with capital in Susa

BC the Parthians led by Orodes II defeat the Romans at Carrhae Syria

BC the Medians/Persians defeat the Scythians

Aug Oil prices ll below a barrel for first time since

BC Darius dies and Xerxes becomes king of Persia

the USA accuses Iran of helping insurgents kill USA soldiers in Iraq

Shapur II died after conquering Arabia and reaching the border with China

BC Bactria declares independence from the Seleucids

the Arabs force the Persians to abandon the Pahlavi alphabet in vor of the Arabic script

BC Artaxerxes II Mnemon becomes king of Persia and loses Egypt

BC Khshathrita/ Phraortes unites the Median tribes and expels the Assyrians from northeastern Iran

the Zoroastrian high priest Tanar eslishes the canon of the Avesta

Dec The first democratically elected parliament in Iran approves a parliamentary constitution and appoints Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh as leader of the parliament

Britain and the Soviet Union withdraw from Iran

Iraq Saddam Hussein attacks Iran Khomeini

Abdolmalek Rigi founds the Sunni terrorist group Jundullah to fight against the Iranian regime

BC Tiridates leads the Parthians to independence from the Seleucids

the Samanids defeat the Safrids and expand their empire to Persia but adopt the Persian language

Apr Sunni rebeles of Jaishul Adl kill Iranian border guards

Shah Ismail I a year old boy from the northwest who claims to be the hidden imam, a descendant of the seventh imam, a reincarnation of Khird, the mahdi and the spirit of Jesus and even assimilates legends from Buddhism and Zoroastrianism founds the Savid dynasty and declares Twelveer Shiism as the state religion persecuting Sunni Muslims

Savid ruler Abbas II orders the forced conversion of Jews

BC the Babylonians, led by king Nabopolassar, and their allies the Medes, led by Cyaxares, destroy the Assyrian capital of Nineveh as well as Nimrud and split the Assyrian empire Mesopotamia to Babylon and Elam to Media while Egypt recovers control of Palestine and Syria

Iran hires the US economist Arthur Millspaugh to run its finances

BC the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine and Phoenicia from the Ptolemaics

the Sassanid king Shapur II defeats the Roman emperor Julian and recapture Nisibis and Armenia

BC Parthians under Priapatius expand into Seleucid eastern Iran

The English East India Company acquires rights to trade freely in Iran

Mohammad Khatami, a reformist, is elected president of Iran, but the ayatollahs still control the army

Ali Khamenei is appointed president of Iran

BC Darius becomes king of Persia and ides Persia into satrapies

BC the Kushan Yuezhi, nomadic tribes expelled from China by the Hsiungnu Huns, overthrow the kingdom of Bactria and pushes the Scythians south to Iran and India

Jan Iranian nuclear scientist Mosta AhmadiRoshan is assassinated

Ottoman Empire and Iran sign a peace treaty defining their borders

BC Mithraism an offshoot of Zoroastrianism that worships Ahura Mazda as the sole and creator god is born in Bactria

the turkicspeaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran Persia, the old Ilkhanate, eslishing his capital in Samarkand

the Khwarazmis conquer Persia from the Seljuqs

The Turkicspeaking Aq Quyunlu dynasty takes control of most of Persia from the Timurids

the Sarid ruler Yaqub Leys revolts against the Arabs and unifies most of Persia

Mar Irans Suleimani helps arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and the Mahdi Army

BC Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India

BC Artaxerxes I Longimanus becomes king of Persia

The price of oil is per barrel, double the price of

Sep A bomb kills ten people in northwest Iran

Babists try to assassinate the shah and are massacred throughout Iran, they move to Ottoman Palestine and found the Bahai ith

Mar Sunni militants kill people in Irans Baluchi region

the turkicspeaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran Persia, the old Ilkhanate, eslishing his capital in Samarkand

The Astrakhanid dynasty collapses and Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan are absorbed into Iran/Persia

a raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and rightwing vigilantes triggers student riots

Sep The USA, Britain and France discover that Iran has built a secret uraniumenrichment cility near Qum

Husain Ali Montazeri and Hashimi Rafsanjani compete for power in Irans parliament

BC Ionian cities helped by Athens sack Sardis but are beaten at the Battle of Ephesus

the USAs and the British secret services engineer a coup to remove Irans prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh, and the USA replaces Britain as the main player in the Middle East

the Buyids shiite descend from the Caspian Sea, and invade Abbasid Persia

Russia and Iran go to war over the Caucasus

Agha Mohammad Qajar conquers all of Iran/Persia

Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia

The Middle East produces only of the worlds oil

There are more university students from Iran than any other nationality in the USA

Oct people including several members of Irans Revolutionary Guards are killed in a suicide bombing in the Baluchi region by Sunni group Jundallah

Jan Iranian physicist Massoud Ali Mohammadi is assassinated

the Sassanid queen Purandokht signs a peace treaty with Byzantium

Sibovayh, a Persian scholar, codifies the Arabic grammar and writes the first Arabic dictionary

BC the Parthians of Mithradates I conquer Media and Elam from the Seleucids, while Edessa becomes decto independent

the Sassanid king Khusro I dies and is succeeded by Khusro II

Britain organizes the AngloIranian Oil Company to exploit the Iranian oil fields

Apr Iran signs a nuclear deal with the world powers

Iran grants Baron DeReuter railway monopoly, mining rights and control of customs revenues

Dec The Iranian rial drops to its lowest level ever against the dollar due to increased sanctions by the USA

Muhammad dies and the years old prince Nasir alDin becomes shah of Iran with help from Britain

Britain invades Afghanistan which becomes, de cto, a British colony

Abu Said dies and the Ilkhanate disintegrates

the war between Iraq and Iran that has cost about one million lives ends with no winner

Iran begins an economic recovery during which P per capite will increase fives times in years

Apr Iranian intelligence agents murder four Iranian Kurds in Germany

Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia Rum

Adud Dawla of the Buyid dynasty adopts the Persian imperial title shah

BC defeated by Ptolemy III Euergetes, the Seleucid empire loses eastern lands to the Parthians and to Pergamum

the Sassanid king Khusro I builds the Palace of the Great Arch in Ctsiphon

The first public school for girls opens in Iran

Iraq uses chemical weapons against Iranian troops

BC Seleucus grants Punjab and Afghanistan to Chandragupta Maurya

the Seljuqs move their capital to Baghdad

BC the Scythians invade the Median empire northeast Persia

Feb Iran becomes a theocratic republic led by the ayatollah Khomeini with a strong antiUSA posture Islamic Revolution and strict Islamic laws girls can legally be forced into marriage at the age of

the Mongols destroy the Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad killing , people including the last Abbasid caliph, conquer Persia, Mesopotamia and Syria and eslishing an Ilkhanate with capital in Baghdad

An AngloIranian treaty turns Iran into a decto protectorate of Britain

Iran cancels DeReuters concessions under pressure from the religious eslishment

Iran and the Ottomans sign the treaty of Erzurum

Irans population is about million and Tehran has about , people

Two women are elected to Irans parliament

Sebaktigin, king of the Ghaznavid kingdom, invades northern India and Central Asia

the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh

BC The Greeks defeat the Persians at the battle of Plataea and expel the Persians from Europe

Mahmoud Khan, an Afghan chieftain, revolts against the Savids, invades Iran/Persia and captures Ishan, thus ending the Savid dynasty

Britain defeats Iran at Herat in Afghanistan

Iranian cleric Hoseyn Ali Montazeri criticizes Ali Khameinis dictatorship and is placed under house arrest

The Ottomans and the Savids sign the Treaty of Zuhab that returns Mesopotamia to the Ottomans and gives the Caucasus to Iran

the Seljuks, led by Toghrul Beg, defeat the Ghaznavids near Merv and invade Persia, moving their capital to Ishan

Agha Mohammad Qajar is murdered by his servants and succeeded by his nephew Fath Ali, who suppresses the Sufi order in Iran

BC Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles

Agha Mohammad Qajar crowns himself shah, thus terminating the Zand dynasty and founding the Qajar dynasty, and unifies Iran/Persia, Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan with rsi as the official language and Shiite Islam as the official religion

Shaykh Murtada/Morteza Ansari is recognized as the spiritual leader of all Shiites, the first time that religious leadership is concentrated in one person

BC the Seleucids under Antiochus III are defeated by the Romans in Thracia

Oct Sunni rebels kill Iranian guards on the border with Pakistan and Iran retaliates by hanging prisoners

the Persian astronomer Nasir AlDin Tusi builds the Maraghah observatory

AD Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism instead of Zoroastrianism

May Iran blames the Sunni group Jundullah for a suicide attack on a mosque of Zahedan that kills people

Russia conquers Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan

Savid king Shah Abbas I moves the capital to Ishan

BC Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia

The Savids conquer Comorao Bandar Abbas from Portugal

BC Seleucus Nicator eslishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty with capital in Seleucia Iraq

BC the Parthians under Aranus II conquer Babylonia from the Seleucids, who now control only Syria

Ghazan, the Ilkhan, converts to Shia Islam, and the Ilkhanate becomes a sultanate

Iran loses the war against Russia and recognizes Russian rule over Georgia and Azerbajan Treaty of Gulistan

persian cultureShahnameh of Ferdowsi

Firuza Abdullaeva and Charles Melville, The Persian Book of Kings Ibrahim Sultans Shahnama Bodleian Library,

Popular culture, poetry, music and visual arts and the roles they play in our society.

Senior Fellow in Persian at SOAS, University of London

Professor of Persian History at Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge

Curator of Middle Eastern Coins at the British Museum

Download the best of Radio s Free Thinking programme.

Barbara Brend and Charles Melville eds., Epic of the Persian Kings The Art of Ferdowsis Shahnameh I.B.Tauris,

Melvyn Bragg explores the pivotal role of Englands north in shaping modern Britain.

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Persian Myths British Museum Press,

Melvyn covered a huge range of subjects in . How much do you remember?

See all broadcasts of Shahnameh of Ferdowsi

Dick Davis, Epic and Sedition The Case of Ferdowsis Shahnameh University of Arkansas Press,

Elizabeth Laird, Shahnameh The Persian Book of Kings Frances Lincoln,

Barbara Brend, Muhammad Jukis Shahnamah of Firdausi Philip Wilson,

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Sarah Stewart eds, The Idea of Iran I.B.Tauris, four volumes published between

Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the epic poem the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the Book of Kings, which has been at the heart of Persian culture for the past thousand years. The poem recounts a legendaryhistory of Iran from the dawn of time to the ll of the Persian Empire in the th century and serves, in a sense, as a creation myth for the Persian nation.

Ferdowsi author, Reuben Levy trans., The Epic of the Kings London, and reprints

Ferdowsi author, Dick Davis trans., Shahnameh The Persian Book of Kings Penguin Classics,

Every episode of In Our Time is available to download.

B. W. Robinson, The Persian Book of Kings An Epitome of the Shahnama of Firdawsi Routledge,

If youre new to In Our Time, this is a good place to start.

A. Shapur Shahbazi, Ferdowsi A Critical Biography Harvard University Press,

The Shahnameh took Ferdowsi thirty years to write and, consisting of over , verses, is said to be the longest poem ever written by a single author. Laced with tragedy, Ferdowsis epic chronicles battles, romances, mily rifts and Mans interior struggle with himself. Although the stories may not always be true they have a profound resonance with Iranians even today, and the poem has been referred to as both the encyclopaedia of Iranian culture and the identity card of the Persian people.

The relipersian religiongion that developed during the Persian Empire was

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The religion that developed during the Persian Empire was Zoroastrianism.

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It is a monotheistic religion and the God is referred to, among others, as Ahura Mazda. Today there are still around . million Zoroastrians mostly in India and Iran.

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